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The Historical Occasion of the Triumphant Victory of Islam over Christianity
During his stay in Madina, the Holy Prophet (SAW) had sent letters to the heads of different countries inviting them to Islam. One such letter was addressed to the Christians of Najaran. It read: “In the Name of the God of Ibrahim, Ishaaq and Ya’qub. This letter is from Muhammad, the Prophet and Messenger of Allah to the Asqaf (Bishop) of Najran. Praise be to the God of Ibrahim, Ishaaq and Ya’qub. I invite you to worship Allah instead of (His) servants. I invite you to come out of the rule of the servants of Allah and into the rule of Allah Himself.”
By using the names of the ancient Prophets (AS), the Holy Prophet (SAW) wanted to let the Christians of Najran know that the belief in One God he was teaching was the same as that preached by the previous Prophets Ibrahim, Ishaaq and Ya’qub (AS), in whom they also believed. It is also mentioned that the Holy Prophet (SAW) included the following verse of the Holy Qur’an in the letter: “Say, (O Muhammad), ‘O people of the Book (Bible), come to an agreement between us and you; that we shall worship none but Allah, and that we shall claim no partner to Him, and that none of us shall take others for lords besides Allah.’ And if they turn away, then say, ‘Bear witness that we are Muslims (those who have surrendered to Allah)’” [3:64].
Christian Pontiffs in Madinah
When this message was delivered to Abu Haris, who was the Asqaf and leader of the Church, he read it carefully and then appointed a committee of some religious and wise people to decide on the matter. One of them, who was an experienced and intelligent person, advised that a group representing the people of Najran should go to Madinah to study the claim of Prophethood by the Holy Prophet (SAW). Sixty people, considered the most wise and knowledgeable from the people of Najran, were elected. Three of their pontiffs led the Christian high-level delegation. The Holy Prophet (SAW) received them with a warm welcome. Before they entered into a discussion, they requested permission to say their prayers and this was granted. They were assigned a section of the mosque where they could pray with ease and comfort.
Then the following conversation took place:
The Holy Prophet (SAW): I invite you towards the belief of Tawhid and the worship of One God and submission to His will. (Then he recited verse 64 of Surah Aali Imran.)
Christian Pontiff: If Islam means faith in the One God of the Universe, we already believe in Him and follow His Commands.
The Holy Prophet (SAW): Islam has a few signs and some of your actions show that you have not accepted true Islam. How do you claim worship of One God when you worship the cross and do not abstain from eating pork and believe that God has a son?
Christian Pontiff: Certainly he [Isa (AS)] was the son of God because his mother Mary [Maryam (A.S.)] had given birth to him without marrying anyone in this world. Therefore, obviously his father is the God of this Universe. We also believe in Jesus [Isa (AS)] as God because he used to bring the dead back to life, cure the sick and create birds from clay and make them fly. All this points to the fact that he is God.
The Holy Prophet (SAW): No, he was the servant and creature of God, and placed in the womb of his mother Maryam (AS). God granted power and strength to him. At this time, Angel Jibraeel (AS) brought the following verse of the Holy Qur’an from Allah: “Surely the example of Isa to Allah is like that of Adam; He created him from dust, and then said to him, ‘Be!’ and he was” [Surah Aali Imran, 3:59]. This meant that if Isa (AS) could be called the son of God because of the fact he was born without a father, then Adam (AS) deserved this title more, because he was born without a father or mother.
The Christian Pontiffs could not reply to this argument but they continued to argue out of obstinacy. Then the following verse of the Holy Qur’an was revealed: “And whoever argues with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say, ‘Come, let us call our sons and your sons and our women and your women and ourselves and yourselves, then let us humbly pray to our Lord and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars’” [Surah Aali Imran, 3:61]. This was the Challenge of MUBAHILA, which took place on the 24 of Dhu al Hijja, 10 A.H.
On the day of the Mubahillah, upon seeing the faces of the Prophet (SAW) and his household members, including Hazrat Fatima (AS), Imam Ali (AS), and Imams Hassan and Hussain (AS), the chief of the Christian delegation declared, “By God, I see the faces, which if they pray to God for mountains to move from their places, the mountains will immediately move. O believers in the Jesus of Nazareth, I will tell you the truth that should ye fail to enter into some agreement with Muhammad (SAW) and if these souls whom Muhammad has brought with him curse you, ye will be wiped out of existence to the last day of the life of the earth.”
Christians Sign a Treaty with the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)
When the Christian Pontiffs backed away from Mubahila, the Holy Prophet (SAW) gave them two choices: either accept Islam or agree to come to terms. The Christians would not agree to accept Islam and therefore a treaty was signed. The treaty was dictated by the Holy Prophet (SAW), written by Imam Ali (AS) and had the signatures of four companions of the Holy Prophet (SAW) as witnesses. In addition to the above, the treaty also included the following words:
“…The people of Najran will remain under the protection of Allah and His Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Their lives, their religion, their lands and property will all remain safe and it will be the responsibility of Allah (SWT) and His Prophet (SAW) to protect them. This treaty holds good for all people of Najran, whether they are present here or not, whether they are members of the tribe or dependent upon them, whether they are slaves or servants. No change will be made in their rights or privileges… “
One of the important conditions agreed in this treaty was that the people of Najran would not deal in usury (interest taking) of any sort, otherwise the Holy Prophet (SAW) would not remain bound by the treaty with them. After the Christians returned home, a few respectable persons from Najran came to Madinah and willingly accepted Islam and became true Muslims.
Unique Triumph of Islam
The event of Mubahila is an extremely important part of history because it shows how close the Ahlul Bayt were to the Holy Prophet (SAW) and thus to Allah (SWT). Imam Ali (AS) used to be called the “Soul of the Prophet” after the event, because the Holy Prophet (SAW) took him to the field of Mubahila as his soul.
On this auspicious and divine occasion we extend our Heartiest and Happy Greetings.
(Source: World Federation )
Special Amaal for Eid-e-Mubahila
The day of Eid-e-Mubahila is a special day. It is a day where the Prophet chose his daughter, the lady of light, Bibi Fatema az-Zahra (A.S.), his cousin and his successor, the first Imam, Imam Ali (A.S.) and his two grandsons, the leaders of the youth of paradise, Imam Hassan (A.S.) and Imam Husayn (A.S.). The prophet could have chosen anybody but he chose these selected infallible beings. Thus this is an important day and one that has also special Amaal that we all insh’allah can reap the benefits from. To view the Ama’al, click here.